Disclaimer: The information provided in this post is based on research conducted from various online sources and may not be 100% accurate or applicable to all situations. It is intended to provide general guidelines and tips for 3D texturing and should not be relied upon as professional or expert advice. Readers are encouraged to conduct their own research and experimentation and consult with field professionals if necessary. The author and publisher of this post are not responsible for any damages or losses that may result from the use or misuse of the information provided herein.
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Types of 3D Texture
There are several types of 3D textures that can be used in different applications. Some of the most common types of 3D textures include:
- Volumetric Texture: This type of texture is used to simulate volumetric effects such as smoke, fog, or fire. Volumetric textures are created by stacking 2D textures on top of each other to create a 3D volume.
- Procedural Texture: This type of texture is generated by an algorithm rather than being created from an image. Procedural textures can be used to create a wide range of effects, such as noise, patterns, and gradients.
- Displacement Texture: This type of texture is used to create the illusion of depth and height on a surface. Displacement textures are created by using grayscale images to modify the surface of a 3D model.
- Normal Texture: This type of texture is used to create the illusion of surface detail on a 3D model. Normal textures are created by using RGB images to modify the surface normals of a 3D model.
Some Texture Properties Materials in Substance Painter and Maya
|Wood||0||0.3-0.7||Wood grain texture map|
|Glass||0||0.1-0.2||Transparency and reflection maps|
|Stone||0||0.5-1||Stone texture maps|
|Fabric||0||0.3-0.7||Fabric texture maps|
Metallic value ranges for various metallic materials in Substance Painter
|Metal||Metallic Value Range||
Roughness Value Range
|Aluminum||0.8 – 1.0||0.1 – 0.5|
|Brass||0.7 – 1.0||0.1 – 0.5|
|Bronze||0.5 – 1.0||0.1 – 0.5|
|Copper||0.8 – 1.0||0.1 – 0.5|
|Gold||0.8 – 1.0||0.05 – 0.2|
|Iron||0.6 – 1.0||0.1 – 0.5|
|Silver||0.8 – 1.0||0.05 – 0.2|
|Steel||0.8 – 1.0||0.1 – 0.5|
Roughness value ranges for various non-metallic materials in Substance Painter
|Material||Roughness Value Range|
|Brick||0.6 – 0.8|
|Concrete||0.5 – 1.0|
|Glass||0.01 – 0.2|
|Leather||0.3 – 0.6|
|Marble||0.2 – 0.5|
|Plaster||0.4 – 0.6|
|Plastic||0.1 – 0.6|
|Rubber||0.3 – 0.6|
|Stone||0.2 – 0.6|
|Wood||0.3 – 0.6|
Difference Between Specular Map and Roughness Map
|Specular Map||Roughness Map|
|Controls the amount of light reflected off a surface.||Controls the sharpness of reflections on a surface.|
|Values range from 0.0 to 1.0, with higher values indicating a more reflective surface.||Values range from 0.0 to 1.0, with higher values indicating a rougher surface.|
|Used in metal/roughness PBR shaders.||Used in PBR shaders and should be plugged into a Gloss or Roughness input.|
|Both control the appearance of reflections on a surface.|
|Both are grayscale textures.|
Does roughness control light?
Yes, roughness does control how light interacts with a material.
- High roughness scatters light in many directions, resulting in a diffuse and less reflective appearance.
- Low roughness reflects light more directly, resulting in a glossy and highly reflective appearance.
- The roughness map can create a desired appearance, from a rough and matte surface to a smooth and glossy one.
Does specular control light?
Yes, specular also controls how light interacts with a material.
- The specular map determines the reflectivity of a material and how it interacts with light sources in the scene.
- A material with a high specular value will appear more reflective and mirror-like.
- A material with a low specular value will appear more diffuse and matte.
What are points to understand for PBR Texture?
- PBR (physically based rendering) is a holistic system of content creation and rendering that uses realistic shading/lighting models and measured surface values to accurately represent real-world materials.
- PBR can have variances in actual implementation, depending on what tools or engine you use.
- Loading any old content into a PBR shader does not guarantee physically accurate results.
- To create PBR textures, you will need to create or acquire texture maps for various surface properties, such as color, roughness, metallic, and normal maps.
- When converting legacy textures to PBR, it is important to consider the differences between the legacy and PBR workflows and adjust your textures accordingly.
- The roughness map is used to control how light interacts with the surface of a material. A high roughness value scatters light in many directions, resulting in a diffuse and less reflective appearance, while a low roughness value reflects light more directly, resulting in a glossy and highly reflective appearance.
- The metallic map is used to control the metallic value of a material. A metallic value of 1.0 indicates a fully metallic material, while a value of 0.0 indicates a fully non-metallic material.
- The normal map is used to simulate surface detail and depth on a 3D object by encoding surface normals in an image.
Why to use PBR Workflow?
PBR (Physically Based Rendering) workflow is a method of creating and rendering 3D graphics that simulates the physical behavior of light and materials in the real world. This workflow is becoming increasingly popular in the game development and visual effects industries because it offers several benefits:
Realistic results: PBR workflow allows for the creation of realistic materials and lighting in 3D graphics. This is because it uses physically accurate values for properties like roughness, reflectivity, and metallicity, which can be used to create accurate reflections, shadows, and highlights.
Consistency: PBR workflow ensures consistency across different platforms and engines. This is because PBR materials are designed to work with any renderer that supports the PBR standard, which means that assets created in one software can be easily imported and used in another.
Speed: PBR workflow can speed up the development process by providing a standard set of materials and textures that can be easily reused across different projects. This can save time and effort in the creation of assets and textures.
Flexibility: PBR workflow allows for a high degree of flexibility in the creation of materials and textures. This is because PBR materials can be adjusted to match the specific needs of a project, and can be easily modified to create different variations of the same material.
Overall, PBR workflow offers a way to create realistic, consistent, and flexible 3D graphics that can be easily reused across different projects and platforms.
Is there any materials which is semi metallic?
Yes, there are materials that are considered semi-metallic or metalloid. These materials possess properties that are intermediate between those of metals and nonmetals. Some examples of semi-metallic materials include:
- Silicon: Silicon is a metalloid that is commonly used in the semiconductor industry to make computer chips and other electronic components.
- Germanium: Germanium is another metalloid that is used in the production of semiconductors.
- Arsenic: Arsenic is a metalloid that is used in the production of pesticides, semiconductors, and other electronic components.
- Antimony: Antimony is a metalloid that is used in the production of flame retardants, batteries, and other electronic components.
- Boron: Boron is a metalloid that is used in the production of ceramics, semiconductors, and other electronic components.
- Tellurium: Tellurium is a metalloid that is used in the production of solar cells, thermoelectric devices, and other electronic components.